Between Tubal-Cain (Cainan), the Builder and Artificer and Hiram Abiff, the Master Architect in the Masonic Tradition and Jesus Christ, the Christian Savior, there is a fine hidden line of Morality, Allegory and Symbol, which if intersected, may reveal that the lost word of Masonry is already found!
We will not get engaged neither into the traditional history of Masonry in this article herein, nor in its alternative or potential beginnings. In fact, that will be left to another future discourse, if I may say, along with examining certain rituals used in the Masonic Tradition. What concerns us now the most is the lost word; known as the word of the Master Mason.
Of course, other than plenty of handshakes or grips adopted in Craft Masonry (the Blue Lodge three degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason) and for the many Appendant degrees presented in either most famous Scottish (30 more degrees) or York Rites (10 more degrees plus around 9 are given as Honorary) of freemasonry, there are many passwords applied in Masonry as well, but the most important ones are the three; Tu-Bal-Cain, Mah-Hah-Bone and Jah-Buh-Lun or Jao-Bul-On.
The password “Tu-Bal-Cain” is used during the pass-grip of a Master Mason in the 3rd Degree, and pronounced by the conductor as Tubal Cain. The word “Mah-Hah-Bone” is used as a substitute word given by the Worshipful Master to the candidate during the “Raising” ritual of the aspirant into a Master Mason. The 3rd important word “Jao-Bul-On”, known also as Jahbulon, is given in the additional seventh degree of the York Rite known as the Royal Arch, also known in full as the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch (of Jerusalem).
The meaning of Tubal-Cain or Tu-Bal-Cain
Should we investigate the first word “Tubal-Cain” in its pronounced method by the conductor during the Masonic ritual, we may understand that the word is in fact a composed word of two words: Tubal and Cain. What are these two words? What do they mean? Are they just words or names given to people back in the ancient time?
We already know from the Old Testament narration that Cain is not a word but a name given to one of the two sons of Adam and Eve; Cain is the one who is said to have killed Abel. The story in Genesis IV: 1-14 goes that Cain who was the older brother (a tiller of the ground) slain Abel (a keeper of sheep) and split his blood upon the earth, because God is said to have preferred Abel sacrifices of sheep and lambs on the ones offered by Cain and which were fruit and corn. On doing that and burying the body of his brother in secret to escape from murder, God knew, of course and cursed Cain, saying in Genesis IV: 10-12; “And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground. And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand; When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.” On hearing the wrath of God, Cain complained that his punishment was greater than he can actually bear, and being a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth would jeopardize his life in the sort that anyone who finds him shall slay him. And here, in Genesis IV: 15, comes the surprise and the strange twist in the story, “And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.”
How is that so?! Is God really that materialistic and blood thirsty to choose a sacrifice of sheep and lambs (of blood) on fruit and corn (of no blood)?!
How is that so?! Was Cain really a murderer that could well have received an award or a mark of safety at the end of his crime?!
Then things have changed for Cain who dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden, and is therefore mentioned as builder of a city! In fact, in Genesis IV: 17, we come into reading the following, “And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch (Henochia, Phenokia).” (Italics are mine)
What about Tubal then? Well, Tubal is not mentioned alone in the Old Testament but along with Cain, in the same form it appeared in Masonry; Tubal-cain. In Genesis IV: 22, we read, “And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.”
Moreover, and according to the Romano-Jewish Historian of the 1st century AD, Flavius Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, written around the year 93 AD, not only was Cain a man to be punished for murdering his brother, but Tubal was also a name of a person. He wrote:
“He (Cain) first of all set boundaries about lands; he built a city, and fortified it with walls, and he compelled his family to come together to it; and called that city Enoch (Henochia, Phenokia), after the name of his eldest son Enoch… Of those children by Ada, one was Jabal; he erected tents, and loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same mother with him, exercised himself in music; and invented the psaltery and the harp. But Tubal, one of his children by the other wife, exceeded all men in strength, and was very expert and famous in martial performances. He procured what tended to the pleasures of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of making brass.” (Italics are mine)
And on Cain, Josephus continued:
“Nay, even while Adam was alive, it came to pass that the posterity of Cain became exceedingly wicked, every one successively dying one after the other, more wicked than the former. They were intolerable in war, and vehement in robberies; and if anyone were slow to murder people, yet was he bold in his profligate behaviour, in acting unjustly, and doing injury for gain.”
Concordantly, both the Old Testament Book of Genesis and Josephus’ account mention almost the same thing on Cain, Tubal or as jointly pronounced, Tubal-Cain. However, what is greatly important for us in decoding the first Masonic Password is in fact the very understanding of the following 3 elements:
1- God is said to have set a mark upon Cain (granting him complete protection against enemies, which means he is no criminal, but the story means actually something else, a change of the sacrificial ritual to the Divine!)
2- Cain was a Mason and Tubal a Master, thus Tubal-Cain means Master Mason (Cain, a builder of a city and Tubal, an Inventor of the art of making brass and Instructor of every artificer in brass and iron)
3- The city built is called Enoch (better call it Henochia, Phenokia)
Is it Phoenicia? Cain could therefore be Canaan written also as Kenan or does it refer to the city of Enoch the seer and Prophet of Mt. Hermon in Phoenicia, as per the Book of Enoch, being himself of the lineage of Seth, the third son who was born to Adam & Eve, replacing Abel, as per the old Testament?
Does this mean anything in plain history? Well, it means a lot so far, and things will get very interesting and mind blowing in a bit…
Having thought about that, we could well refer to Voyage en Orient, a wonderful work penned by the French author, poet and essayist, Gérard de Nerval, who places Enochia, the first city ever built, on the plateau of Lebanon. He wrote in French;
“Et d’ailleurs qui oserait faire du scepticisme au pied du Liban ? Ce rivage n’est-il pas le berceau même de toutes les croyances du monde ? Interrogez le premier montagnard qui passe : il vous dira que c’est sur ce point de la terre qu’eurent lieu les scènes primitives de la Bible ; il vous conduira à l’endroit où fumèrent les premiers sacrifices ; il vous montrera le rocher taché du sang d’Abel ; plus loin existait la ville d’Enochia, bâtie par les géants, et dont on distingue encore les traces ; ailleurs c’est le tombeau de Chanaan (Kanaan), fils de Cham (Ham).” (Italics are mine)
If indeed Phoenicia—where the tomb of Canaan (Cain, Kenan, Kain-an) rested—was the cradle of all religions that have spread across the world, and that the primitive scenes of the Bible have occurred in this Promised Land, and that the first sacrifices happened, and the first city of Enochia (Enoch, Phenok) was built by the giants known as the Anakim (sons of Enoch), than this very first story of the Old testament would be well understood, besides the fact that it was vulgarized by the Hebrews *, the Aebirou-al-naher from Babylon & Ur to the Land of Cainan at the time of the Persian king Cyrus II, all in the hope of promoting themselves as the Chosen People and distorting the image of the Canaanites as being a Cursed People. Yet this, is no longer agreed or accepted by the educated mass…
In truth, this whole story is not but a symbolic telling that hides a great allegory behind it and is related to the act of sacrifice to God which have changed with Cain killing Abel, and that which means the sacrificial to God of sheep and lambs (of blood) has been replaced by fruit and corn (of no blood). The anger of God against Cain because of killing Abel has soon changed into an acceptance of Cain’s sacrifice of fruit (grapes/vine) and corn (wheat/bread) by setting a mark of safety upon him, a mark of Initiation that only Initiates would understand, a mark that characterized the lineage for generations to come. So the old sacrifice of blood that was practiced before and accepted by God has changed into a pure sacrifice with Cain.
On Cain, the founder of the Theosophical Society, H. P. Blavatsky, wrote in her Isis Unveiled, “Cain leads the ascending line, or Macrocosm, for he is the son of the “Lord,” not of Adam… Cain means a smith, an artificer… Kain-an, is identical with Cain.”
Since the sacrifice have changed into a more pure practice and theology evolved into a more spiritual relation with God, it would be then understood why Kain is looked upon as the son of the “Lord” ** or Adam-Kadmon and not of Adam (the primitive man molded of the mud), although we know that the it was Enoch who Initiated the ritual of bread & wine on Mt. Hermon—a ritual later practiced by Milki-Sedek and Yāwshua (Jesus). The cubical altar erected on top of Mt. Armon had two pillars on its sides; the bright golden stone on the Left Pillar with the ear of wheat (corn)—the Bread, the glowing purple stone on the Right Pillar with the vine (fruit)—the Wine.
Was it Enoch or Kain?! It doesn’t really matter that much, for it depends, however, on which genealogy one is looking at; the Sethite Line of generations or the Kenites.
~ The Sethite Line: Adam – Seth – Enos – Cainan – Mahalaleel – Jared – Enoch – Methuselah – Lamech – Noah.
~ The Kenite line: Adam – Cain – Enoch – Irad – Mehujael – Methusael – Lamech – Jubal – Jabal – Tubalcain. (Genesis IV:18)
Now, Seth is the third son born to Adam and Eve as a replacement for Abel (Genesis 4:25) who favored the sacrifice of flesh and blood. Seth walked the path of Cain in the new ritual of bread and wine (fruit & corn) and became therefore known as one of the greatest mystery teachers, an Initiate of Men. He is Teth, Thor, Thot-Taautus, Enoch, Hermes, Mercury, etc. In fact, there is no difference between Cain-an, Seth or Enoch, but it is a one line of selected people marked by God † to teach men the secrets of life.
We found a support for that in the Apocryphal Book of Jubilees, where Cainan was mentioned as a boy who was instructed by his father (Enoch) to read; a learned man he became, finding mysterious inscriptions concerning the secret science and wisdom of astrology carved on the rocks!
At any rate and since we consider the Book of Enoch as very important in the overall unlocking of the great mysteries and secrets, we have adopted the Sethite Line, which was conveyed to us in the following manner, “The vision which he saw, the second vision of wisdom, which Enoch saw, the son of Jared, the son of Mahaleel, the son of Canan, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam.”
Enoch then, who walked with God (as his chosen son) and the Angels whom he saw in a vision into the nine vaults had learned of the coming deluge or flood where God intended to end Humanity because they sinned with the Falling Angels, and start all over again. Enoch wishing to preserve the knowledge of mankind and the secrets he have learned from the Good Angels, he, with the assistance of his son, Methusaēl, constructs in the Land of Canaan, (whether it is Gebel or Sūr) “in the bowels of the Mountain” (whether it is Mt. Hermon or Mt. Moriah or the Great Pyramid of Egypt as some would suggest according to yet another Enochian Phoenician tradition) nine vaults situated perpendicularly beneath each other on the model he saw in the prophetic vision. Each was roofed with an Arch, and the apex of each formed a keystone, having inscribed on it the mirific characters. Each of the latter, represented one of the nine names or attributes by which God was known to him, Enoch, the Initiate he was. Then Enoch constructed two deltas (or triangle, like the Pythagorean Tetraktys, the Sacred Decade) of the purest gold (or a white porphyry stone in one version), tracing two of the mysterious characters on each (the ineffable name of God «Ēl or Ēloh» or the Lost Word of a Master Mason ….), he placed one of them in the deepest Arch, and the other, also inscribed with strange words Enoch had gained from the Angels themselves, he entrusted it to his son Methusaēl to keep, communicating to him, at the same time, other important Secrets now lost to freemasonry!
The meaning of Mah-Hah-Bone
This will not take long since the word Mah-Hah-Bone means actually nothing! In fact, Masonry openly reveals that the correct word or the word of the Master was lost with the death of Hiram Abiff, and that king Solomon has substituted the word of the Master Architect, now lost, with Mah-Hah-Bone!
In Duncan’s Ritual of Freemasonry, penned by Author Malcolm A. Duncan, we read, “In the meantime, the canvas is slipped out of the Lodge, and as the Master commences to give or whisper the word in the candidate’s ear, some one of the brethren slips off the hoodwink, and this is the first time he has seen light, probably, in an hour. The following is the representation of the Master giving candidate the grand Masonic word, or at least this is a substitute, for, according to Masonic tradition, the right one was lost at the death of Hiram Abiff.”
In the explanatory footnote linked to that paragraph, Duncan explained, commenting as follows, ‘Respecting the lost word and its substitute, some say that king Solomon advised the change, while others affirm that the three Fellow Craft adopted the substituted word without consulting him.’ Quoting from The Freemason’s Treasury, he added that the interpreted word, ‘is not to be found in any language that ever was used. It is, in fact, not a word, but merely a jumble of letters, forming a sound without meaning.’
What does this mean?! It means a lot actually and it simply means that Masons have lost the Word of the Phoenician Master Hiram Abiff ever since he was killed and that Solomon transmitted to them a temporary word until they found the correct one again, yet this word that Solomon the so-called wise has come up with has no meaning in any known language; a nonsense word. It also means that Solomon knew nothing of the secrets and mysteries that Hiram Abiff knew and that the temple he built in Ur-Šalim is in fact not the temple of Solomon, because if it was, he would then have known the lost mysterious word! We will come to that in a different article.
However, many Keepers and Initiates of Mystery Schools and Initiatic Orders around the world watchfully shielded the secrets from the ignorant commoners, and this is no exception to freemasonry! Since Freemasonry has been defined by its own historians as “a science of morality, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols”, then it might just be the case for its mysteries. In 1717 AD, the Grand Lodge of England was established in London, on John the Baptist’s Day, June 24th. Since St. John the Evangelist is the patron saint of English Freemasonry, it would then be important for them to conduct a conscious, intelligent Lodge, where the New Testament lays open on the first chapter of the Gospel of St. John. The candidate, in his continual search for the lost word, could finally open his blind eyes and read:
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.”
And that would remind Masons of the Ritual of the 18th degree of the Rose-Croix in Scottish Rite Masonry, Southern Jurisdiction as described in H. P. Blavatsky’s work, Isis Unveiled.
“Most Wise. — What hour is it?
“Respectful K.S. Warden. — It is the first hour of the day, the time when the veil of the temple was rent asunder, when darkness and consternation were spread over the earth — when the light was darkened — when the implements of Masonry were broken — when the flaming star disappeared — when the cubic stone was broken — when the ‘word’ was lost.” ‡
Within all that game of darkness and light, the first three degrees of the Craft, or what is called the Blue Lodge Masonry are composed of the Entered Apprentice Degree, the Fellow Craft Degree, and the Master Mason Degree—consecrated to Hiram Abiff, the Master Architect. In the Phoenician Initiatic language, the name Hiram that sounds similar to Hermes could well mean the enlightened one or divine messenger and teacher, just like the meaning of the word Enoch, Initiator, or it could derive from the word Khur-Um, which means lifted up to life.
The legend of the Architect, Hiram Abiff—and his assassination by three evil brothers—was first incorporated into the freemasonic rituals by the Grand Lodge of England. The ritual bestowed the names: Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum on the killers of Hiram Abiff, known collectively as the Juwes!
In The Hiram Key, written by British Authors, Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, we thus read, “The ceremony continued in a manner similar to the two former degrees and I emerged a full Master Mason. Some months later, when there was no candidate to progress in the Lodge meeting, a Past Master gave an explanation of the Third Degree. The three villains who murdered Hiram Abiff were identified as Jubela, Jubelo and Jubelum, known jointly as the Juwes; pronounced Joo-ees.”
This strange accusation of the three Juwes killing Hiram Abiff, has also been mentioned by American Author, John Robinson, in his Born in Blood–the lost secrets of freemasonry. He wrote: “Finally it is reported to King Solomon that Hiram Abiff is not to be found, so a roll call is ordered, which reveals the absence of Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum, collectively known to Masons as the Juwe.”
Sometimes, Hiram Abiff is shown as an allegorical Jesus Christ, killed, so to speak, by Judas, Caiaphas, and Pilate. However, when Pilate, as mentioned in Matthew 27:24-25, saw that nothing was being gained, but that a disturbance had started instead, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it. All the people answered, ‘May his blood be on us, and on our children!” Henceforth, Annas—the father-in-law of Caiaphas—should be the third man, not Pilate; for Judas, Caiaphas, and Annas were, in fact, the three Jewish men (Juwes) that masterminded his arrest, as mentioned in the New Testament. That was what led to his Crucifixion by the Romans, and his Resurrection three days after that.
But Masonry keeps on saying that Hiram died and was not resurrected but lifted up to life and that what happened in the third degree ritual of a Master Mason is Raising, not a simulation of Resurrecting the candidate into a Master Mason. In truth, whether it is lifted up to life, elevated to life, resurrecting or raising, three degrees later, the meaning remains the same in esoteric teachings.
The similarity between “Resurrection” and “Raising” has been intelligently tackled by English Author W.L. Wilmshurst, in his wonderful work, the Meaning of Masonry, where he wrote: “If in Masonry the mystical death is dramatized more realistically than the resurrection that follows upon it, that resurrection is nevertheless shown in the ‘raising’ of the candidate to the rank of Master Mason…”
The secret knowledge of freemasonry reveals with precise explanation that in the third degree the Fellow Mason would undertake a ritual of resurrection into a Master Mason, thus, perfectly mirroring the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day. “For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection,” St. Paul had declared in his Epistle to the Romans, 6:5. Therefore, if the legendary Temple of Solomon was not completed in Freemasonry, it was simply because Jesus Christ is the Temple of God in its Completion.
Didn’t he say, in John 2:19, that if they destroy this Temple, Him, he will raise it up—his body—in three days?
Yes he did!
The meaning of Jah-Buh-Lun or Jao-Bul-On
The strange word Jah-Buh-Lun or Jao-Bul-On (Jahbulon) is undoubtedly a combination of three syllables that have confused historians and Masons of what they actually stand for. In the additional system of continually higher degrees, of which, the best known was the seventh degree of the York Rite; the Royal Arch, fully called as the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch, a degree that follows the direction of the Grand Lodge of the Royal Arc, also known as the Holy Royal Arch of Jerusalem, Masons would find an incorporation of Jewish myths and history by going as far back as King Cyrus II of Persia, the Babylonian Zoro-Babel—prince of the people, and others! In the Royal Arch Degree, the candidate would logically become higher than a Master (the Third Degree), whereby, is said, he would encounter the Essence of the Philosophical Masonry, and, as shown in the Hebraic Torah, this would allow him to discover the real name of God—the ineffable name YHWH, camouflaged in the mysterious name of Jah-Bul-On!
In fact, all Masonic sources we have investigated suggest that the name mentioned here is a combination of three different names of God ‘Most High’ known to three or four different people that characterized the history of mankind in the past. It is believed that the first syllable ‘Jah or Jao’ is the name of the Chaldean Iao and/or the Jewish Yaho (Yahweh, YHWH). The second syllable ‘Buh or Bul’ may be the name of the Canaanite-Phoenician Ba’al and/or the Chaldean Bel, whereas the third syllable ‘On, An, or Aun’ could refer to the Egyptian Osiris or On (city of Heliopolis), the Greek On, and/or the Akkadian/Sumerian An.
Therefore, we say “camouflaged,” because the rite practiced at the Royal Arch Degree is about Jewish myths and history from King Cyrus II to the construction of the temple in Jerusalem by the ‘seed of Babel’, Zoro-Babel. Thus, the mysterious name Jah-Bul-On, would mean nothing in such a rite consecrated for Judaism, and the only name that would mean anything here is the Chaldean mystery god ‘Iao’ from which was inspired the Jewish ‘Yaho’, better known as YHWH, which is in fact the Androgynous Demiurge Ievo-hevah.
It is not strange to hear from freemasons that it is their fundamental belief to endorse the concept of a single and similar God (to a certain extent) under different names, however, the three syllables “Jah-Bul-On” represents different names for different gods! While the Chaldean-Jewish God Iao or Yaho is not but a representation of an upright male and an egg-shaped female, principles of Nature, the Kabalistic Yod-Heva, the Chaldean Bel means Lord, associated with a solar cult of the Babylonian Marduk or the Phoenician Ba’al, meaning Lord, a solar god, sometimes associated with storm (lightening, rain, wind), and also identified with Ēl (Ēlyon) being his son, whereas the Greek On symbolizes the sun, the Egyptian Osiris represents the god of the afterlife—of resurrection, and the Akkadian/Sumerian An, meaning Sky Father.
At any rate, if this confusing name Jah-Bul-On of the Royal Arch rite was truly found by the Templars carved on an ancient stone, as some have suggested, while excavating deep beneath the center of the Jerusalem temple, it could well be a sacred ritual stone that belongs to the first builders of the first Temple built by the Amorites (A Canaanite-Phoenician tribe) on Mt. Moriah, in the Canaanite/Phoenician city of Ur-Šalim, the city of Šalim (Jerusalem) long before the Hebrews/Jews entered into history!
If that was the case indeed, then the riddle is totally unlocked where the spelling and interpretation of the mysterious name would be different from what it was traditionally believed, and the real name would thus be understood as Yāw-Baal-Ōn (Jawbalon). It therefore represents the two Pillars surrounding the altar! The Pillar Yāw (water, for Yāw is the Phoenician god of water, very much like Yamm) and the Pillar Ba’al (fire, for Ba’al is god of thunder and lightning) ∦ standing vibrantly on both sides of the Sacred Altar consecrated to Ōn (from Ēlyōn, Adon; a name given to ‘Ēl’ at a certain time and in special consecrated places) in a Temple dedicated to Šalim (one of the Ēlohim or sons of Ēl in the Phoenician Pantheon, being the god of dusk)—a Temple that could have been built for a Canaanite/Phoenician King/Priest reigning over Ur-Šalim. He could well be Milki-Sedek (Melchizedek), the High Priest of the Most High God Ēl, or one of his faithful descendants in the lineage of the Sydyk (Sedek) Priests, like Adoni-Sedek (Adonizedek)!
Unfortunately, despite all the wariness of the ancient & authentic Phoenician/Egyptian Order of the Great White Fraternity, the shape of the true “Word” has been stolen, corrupted by the Chaldean-Judaic system and the Orders or Brotherhoods that followed it, but not lost. It is the mission of the Great White Fraternity to recuperate the Authentic Enochian Tradition of the past from Enoch to Yāwshua, passing by Milki-Sedek, Hiram Abiff and Pythagoras, and ultimately reveal the Secrets of the Holy Grail while keeping it protected forever.
In fact, what has been written in John’s Book of Revelation, explains it all, for we read in 2:17, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches (from mouth to ear); To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written (The Word), which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.” (Italics are mine)
And thus, the long lost word is now found!
* The Old Testament narration and Josephus’ account of the Antiquities of the Jews.
** Genesis IV:1, “And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.”
† Some say that the mark was actually the Tau, the Phoenician Cross.
‡ It is very inspiring to note here that Alchemy in the Authentic Kabalistic Enochian Tradition would surely consider the idea that the Philosopher’s Stone, as described by the Rosicrucians, is Christ himself—the Christ Spirit, so as to say.
∦ The story of the two Pillars, one for fire and one for wind (or rains) has been conveyed to us first by the Phoenician Historian and Priest Sanchoniaton of Birot, Beirut (10th century BC) in a text translated by Philo of Byblos and related to us by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica, (Book 1, Chapter 10) and second by Josephus (37 AD–100 AD) in the first book of his Antiquities of the Jews.
_______ Written by Karim El Koussa